The sole source of water supply within the eastern part of the sub-basin and its pipeline network is the Calueque Dam in Angola. Dependency on sources outside Namibia is a crucial aspect of the water supply to this sub-basin and must be considered when deciding about development of alternative water supply options such as desalination. The western part of the sub-basin is supplied mainly from groundwater resources. The western and southern part of the sub basin offers good groundwater quality in sufficient quantity. Further down-gradient towards the basin centre, the water quality declines and near the Etaka Canal all groundwater is saline. The Etunda Irrigation Project, between Ruacana and Olushandja Dam, is one of the largest single water consumers in Namibia. At this stage about 11 Mm3 per annum are supplied to the project by Namibia Water Corporation (NamWater). The water is supplied via a canal from the Calueque Dam in Angola. The commercial irrigation projects around Olushandja dam are growing at a steady rate and are expected to provide enough fruits and vegetables for the region in the near future. Other water uses are domestic, livestock watering, and commercial fish farming at Onavivi and Epalela.

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